As a precaution, I would change your password to something stronger than whatever it is right now, and also change your secret question and answer. Suddenly vanishing emails is a common sign of a malware infection or a compromised account. Run a complete scan of your machine with your A/V software to see if it finds anything wrong. There are no editable deletion schedules in the new format.
Also, do you have another device like a smartphone or tablet with the account enabled on it? If so it may be downloading and then deleting the messages from the server. Check all the settings in it to see if that's what's going on. Then call Comcast security and ask them to look at your account and recover the emails.
Comcast Customer Security Assurance-------------------
Normal business hours (6:00 am to 2:00 am EST, 7 days a week)
1 - 888-565-4329